February 24, 2015

Simple Code Coverage Analyzer

coco.cpp is a simple pintool for code coverage analysis. It comes with the Pin Framework.

The reason I write a post about it is because it's really a simple but well-designed tool. The code coverage information for an executable section is stored in a vector of booleans. Each boolean represents a byte in the executable section. If the boolean is set true it means the corresponding byte has been executed. If the boolean is set false the corresponding byte is untouched.

If you want the tool to produce the code coverage hash just add yourself a call that calculates the hash of the vector of booleans. This works well when the pintool is executed on small programs.

However when working with more complex programs it's possible you notice that different code coverage hashes produced for seemingly similar executions. This is not an error. The code coverage can be different between the executions in the finest graduality sense. One example is when the application exits via different path between the executions.

To filter these differences above you can virtually split the vector into many regions and produce the hash of each region. Now you may see that most of the hashes are the same between the executions.

UPDATE 24/February/2015 No official PIN repository to see coco.cpp but Gunther was kind to share it via Twitter for those want to take a look at without the need to download the framework. Thx!

January 18, 2015

Even Calculator Has Bugs

Windows Calculator (calc.exe) has a functional bug that is associated with the clipboard and the integers below.

INT8_MIN  -128
INT16_MIN -32768
INT32_MIN -2147483648
INT64_MIN -9223372036854775808

In Programmer mode (View -> Programmer) when Dec and Byte are selected the minimum value the calculator can accept is -128. It's tricky to enter that value but you can do by the following four key-presses: (1) (+/-) (2) (8). I said it's tricky as you can't type (1) (2) (8) (+/-) because 128 is greater than the maximum value of INT8 that is 127. While it's a bit inconvenience it can be worked around.

To reproduce the bug select Dec and Byte and type -128. Copy it to the clipboard via Edit -> Copy or Ctrl+C. Then paste it via Edit->Paste or Ctrl+V. What happens is -12 is pasted rather than -128, discarding the last digit.
Last digit is discarded when -128 (INT8_MIN) is pasted.

The effect is the same if you copy -128 in Notepad then paste it in Calculator.

While a beeping sound may be heard when pasting, nothing else warns you about the error. Those who muted the speaker may not notice the error. This is especially possible when the value is long in digits (INT64_MIN) and can be easily overlooked.

It's plausible that programmers use INT_MIN values in their calculations as these are commonly used when developing software.

Windows 8.1 is affected by this issue. Other versions are not verified but likely affected.

While this issue is most likely the limitation of the design some may find it embarrassing as a calculator has nothing else to do than to work with numbers without failure.

The issue found when I was recently working on my own calculator for Windows Phone. I realized I had to deal with many corner cases and I checked how these corner cases affect Windows Calculator.

January 11, 2015

Arrangement Of The Variables In Data Structures

Let's assume that an extensive code review had identified the direct security issues and the developers eliminated all. Now the code is free from bugs. How nice to write that. :-)

That would not be the reason to stop code review though. There may be still things to be done to reduce the severity of potential future bugs.

Newly added code can introduce and/or expose issues. The idea is to make changes in the existing code that make the exploitation of a future bug more challenging. This is good to do without introducing new issues like performance degradation, etc.

Given a heap based buffer overflow, one of the common attack scenario is to overwrite a function pointer in any structure. If, however, the function pointer is at the end of the structure, the overflow may:
  • Not be long enough to overwrite the function pointer
  • Overwrite the variables preceding the function pointer and so destroy the internal state of the application. This could lead the application to bail out early before the function gets called.
So putting the function pointer as a last item in the structure can make exploitation more challenging.

A more generic suggestion in security point of view is like this. If possible, arrange the variables to have
  • the sensitive ones at the end of the structure
  • the ones that can bail the execution out early at the beginning of the structure

January 6, 2015

EMET Can Interfere With Pin

Sometimes no matter how simple your pintool is when it's run against the target it crashes. Recently I investigated such crash. One of my pintool was randomly crashed/hung/terminated as well as displayed memory errors.

My target was added to EMET (Enhanced Mitigation Experience Toolkit). Also, EMET was running at the time of experiment. I was thinking... what if I stop EMET? I disabled all the mitigations in EMET and stopped its service. Re-launched my pintool and checked if EMET.dll and EMET64.dll are not loaded in the target's process. This time my pintool was running without any obstacle.

Third party programs can make a pintool to crash. Of course, it's not a surprise but it's something to be aware of when working with a pintool.

If your pintool is still crashing you may want to take look at one of my earlier post.

December 21, 2014

Use of refactor can make Visual C# 2013 to crash

For the change I'm working on a C# project not much to do with security. I was happy to re-discover and use the refactor feature in Visual C# 2013 until the point it crashed. Here are the simplified steps to reproduce the crash.
  • Create an empty Visual C# project, or open any C# project.
  • Add a class like below.
  • Do right-click on hello in hello = true, select Refactor, then select Remove Parameters...

  • Visual C# crashes.
Note, I was able to trigger the crash by an alternate way by simply using the hotkey Ctrl+R, Ctrl+V when the cursor is within hello in hello = true.

The bug reproduces with the up-to-date version of Visual C# 2013 Community Edition.

December 19, 2014

Variable-length permutation with repetition using backtracking

Recently, I needed the implementation of the search algorithm that qualifies for the followings.
  1. It must be able to produce the variable-length permutation with repetition of the given set.
  2. It must be based on backtracking.
  3. It must be a state machine.
  4. It must have basic programming elements only.
  5. It must be clean without irrelevant part.
Even I needed the final implementation in ActionScript, I was searching for the algorithm in C that I would convert later. Thought my odds would be better if I did so. Unluckily I didn't find anything useful, and so I wrote the code myself. Here is the sample implementation in C.

// Features:
// - Variable-length permutation with repetition
// - Backtracking
// - State machine

#include <stdio.h>

#define ITEMS            3                       // number of items
#define LASTITEM_IDX     (ITEMS-1)               // index of the last item
#define INIT             -1                      // initial value
#define EMPTY            0                       // empty

static char set[ITEMS]  = {1,2,3};               // set

// State
static char idx[ITEMS]  = {INIT,INIT,INIT};      // indices into set
static char out[ITEMS]  = {EMPTY,EMPTY,EMPTY};   // output

static int index = INIT;
static bool dir = 1;                             // direction: deep(1) / wide(0)
// State - END

bool backtrack();

// item to try
void add_item() {
    out[index] = set[idx[index]];

bool step_wide() {
    if (index == INIT) {
        // reached initial level
        // no more items to take
        return false;
    // way to go wider?
    if (idx[index] < LASTITEM_IDX) {
        add_item();          // take item
        return true;
    else {
        return backtrack();  // backtrack a level higher

bool backtrack() {
    // backtrack a level higher
    idx[index] = INIT;
    out[index] = EMPTY;

    return step_wide();

bool step_deep() {
    // way to go deeper?
    if (index < LASTITEM_IDX) {
        index++;             // step a level deeper
        add_item();          // take item
        return true;
    else {
        return step_wide();  // step wide

// returns true if step is successful
// returns false if no more items to take
bool step() {
    if (dir) {
        return step_deep();
    } else {
        return step_wide();

int main(int argc, char* argv[])
    while (step()) {
        for (int i=0; i<ITEMS && out[i]!=EMPTY; i++) {
            printf("%02x ", out[i]);

    return 0;

The source can be downloaded from here.

The output of the run looks like this.

01 01
01 01 01
01 01 02
01 01 03
01 02
01 02 01
01 02 02
01 02 03
01 03
01 03 01
01 03 02
01 03 03
02 01
02 01 01
02 01 02
02 01 03
02 02
02 02 01
02 02 02
02 02 03
02 03
02 03 01
02 03 02
02 03 03
03 01
03 01 01
03 01 02
03 01 03
03 02
03 02 01
03 02 02
03 02 03
03 03
03 03 01
03 03 02
03 03 03
  This blog is written and maintained by Attila Suszter. Read in Feed Reader. Advert is experimentally shown.